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State v. King

Supreme Court of Kansas

June 1, 2018

State of Kansas, Appellee,
Dyron M. King, Appellant.


         1. When sufficiency of the evidence is challenged in a criminal case, the standard of review is whether, after reviewing all the evidence in a light most favorable to the prosecution, the appellate court is convinced a rational fact-finder could have found the defendant guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. Appellate courts do not reweigh evidence, resolve evidentiary conflicts, or make witness credibility determinations.

         2. Conspiracy requires, in part, an agreement between two or more persons to commit or assist in committing a crime. The existence of an agreement can be proved by sufficient circumstantial evidence.

         3. Appellate courts use a two-step process to evaluate claims of prosecutorial error- simply described as error and prejudice. To determine if the prosecutor erred, the appellate court must decide whether the prosecutorial acts complained of fall outside the wide latitude afforded prosecutors to conduct the State's case and attempt to obtain a conviction in a manner that does not offend the defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial. If the court finds error, the burden falls on the State to demonstrate beyond a reasonable doubt that the error complained of will not or did not affect the outcome of the trial in light of the entire record, i.e., where there is no reasonable possibility the error contributed to the verdict.

         4. A court may order a separate trial for any one defendant when two or more defendants are jointly charged with a crime. But either a defendant or the prosecuting attorney must first request the severance. A defendant's failure to request severance constitutes a waiver of his or her ability to seek severance.

          Appeal from Wyandotte District Court; J. Dexter Burdette, judge.

          Michael G. Highland, of Bonner Springs, argued the cause and was on the brief for appellant.

          Ethan Zipf-Sigler, assistant district attorney, argued the cause, and Mark A. Dupree, district attorney, and Derek Schmidt, attorney general, were with him on the brief for appellee.


          Stegall, J.

         Following a string of violent robberies that occurred in Kansas City, Missouri, and Kansas City, Kansas, Dyron M. King and Cecil Meggerson were jointly tried. The jury convicted King of one count of attempted capital murder; three counts of aggravated robbery; two counts of aggravated battery; one count of conspiracy to commit aggravated robbery; and two counts of criminal possession of a firearm. The jury acquitted King of one count of aggravated robbery and one count of criminal threat. The district court imposed a hard 25 life sentence for the attempted capital murder and consecutive 449 months' imprisonment for the remaining convictions.

         King appealed his convictions to this court, arguing (1) there was insufficient evidence that he was one of the robbers; (2) the prosecutor committed reversible error in closing arguments; (3) the district court erred by denying his motion for new trial; and (4) cumulative error deprived him of a fair trial. Because we find substantial evidence supports the jury verdict and we discern no reversible error, we affirm.

         Factual and Procedural Background

         Given the nature of King's challenges on appeal, we will undertake a detailed recitation of the events leading to King's convictions.

         Don's Market and Liquors robbery

         On the evening of February 27, 2015, three men wearing black clothing and brandishing guns entered Don's Market and Liquors at 3000 Southwest Boulevard, Kansas City, Missouri. The cashier noticed one of the men was armed with a revolver and another carried a semiautomatic handgun with "a longer magazine." The man with the revolver-wearing a white mask and a pair of black and white gloves-came around the counter and demanded money. The cashier emptied the cash from the register into a plastic sack. The robbers then demanded the cashier's wallet, but when he was unable to locate it, he was pushed to the ground. The robbers left with the plastic sack, various types of liquor, cartons of cigarettes, and lottery tickets.

         The store's surveillance cameras showed the man with the white mask was also wearing black and white batting gloves and gray "boot style" shoes. Another robber was carrying a "MAC-11 style" semiautomatic gun with an extended magazine. This suspect wore a mask and Nike shoes with a distinctive yellow or white toe pattern. The third robber was wearing all black and carrying a revolver with a wood handle. Surveillance video from a nearby business showed the three suspects exit the store and get in a black four-door sedan with no front license plate.

         Family Dollar robbery

         Around 8:45 p.m. on March 3, 2015, Patricia Pope was working as a cashier at the Family Dollar located at 1225 Quindaro, Kansas City, Kansas. Reginald Jones was a customer in the store at the time. Pope was restocking the shelves when she noticed Jones make his way to the front register to pay for his items. As she walked to the front to help Jones, a taller man with a handgun came through the front door wearing black clothing, a mask, and gloves. The suspect approached Jones and pointed the gun at him. While this was occurring, two other individuals who were wearing dark clothing entered the store.

         The taller suspect spoke to Jones, but Pope could not make out what was said. He then struck Jones in the forehead with the handgun, and Jones fell to the ground, bleeding heavily. While on the ground, Jones was told to give up his keys and billfold. Jones tossed them his keys and said to take his car. But the robbers eventually left the store without taking the keys.

         After striking Jones, the taller suspect grabbed Pope and pushed her toward the counter. Once behind the counter, the man used a tool to pry open the cash register. He emptied the contents of the drawer into a store trash can and then repeated the same process at another cash register.

         While the taller man was prying open the drawers, another robber shoved Pope to the ground near the store's safe, demanding she open it. When Pope said she could not open it, the man fired two shots near her, one hitting the ground by her leg. Pope repeated that she was unable to open the safe, so he fired a third shot over her shoulder next to her face. The robbers left the store with the contents of the cash registers and some Newport cigarettes from behind the counter.

         Pope noticed the taller suspect had on blue "workman's boots or workman's shoes." Pope told a responding officer she could tell all three suspects were black males, but she later testified at trial that she could not discern their race. The store's surveillance video revealed one of the men was wearing a hoodie with a large gold eagle on the back. Another suspect wore black and white gloves and had a MAC-style semiautomatic handgun with an extended magazine. All three suspects had a firearm, one of which was a revolver with a wood handle. In addition to the surveillance video, investigators recovered two shell casings and a bullet from the store.

         Shamrock robbery

         Shortly after 10 p.m. on March 3, 2015, three armed men dressed in black robbed a Shamrock gas station at 8505 Woodland Avenue in Kansas City, Missouri. Brenden Foxworthy and Dustin Paquet were working the evening shift. Both Foxworthy and Paquet described one of the robbers as taller than the others. The taller robber, who was wearing a black mask covering his entire face, ordered Foxworthy to open the registers and safe. Foxworthy opened the registers, but when he was unable to open the safe, he was struck several times on top of his head with a gun. Foxworthy fell to the ground where he remained until the suspects left.

         Paquet observed one of the suspects was carrying a handgun with an extended magazine. All three robbers concealed their faces with either a mask, scarf, or hoodie. At some point before Foxworthy was struck, a shot was fired. After the suspects had left the store, Foxworthy heard shots being fired in the parking lot.

         Surveillance footage showed the tallest robber was wearing all black clothing and wielding a semiautomatic handgun with an extended magazine. He was wearing black and white batting gloves and a gray boot style shoe. The second suspect was dressed in all black and wore a mask with a University of Missouri Tiger's logo. He had on two-tone gray gloves and was carrying a revolver with a wood handle. The last suspect wore a black hoodie with a distinctive gold eagle design on the back and a pair of gloves with a faded yellow logo. He also wore Nike shoes with a unique yellow and white toe pattern.

         Foxworthy and Paquet told officers that the suspects took money and bottles of Patron. Video surveillance showed the robbers also took bottles of Rémy Martin, 1800 Tequila, and other bottles of tequila. Officers recovered several bullet shell casings from the parking lot.

         Kicks 66 robbery

         Around 12:45 a.m. on March 4, 2015, three masked men robbed a Kicks 66 gas station at the corner of 79th Street and Wornall Road in Kansas City, Missouri. Dannella Villa, the general manager, was training Derrick Brining that night. Villa saw three armed men dressed in dark clothing with their faces covered run through the front door. All three men were armed with handguns. Villa noticed one of the men had a mask with some sort of design. She described the height of the robbers as "one tall, one medium, and one short."

         When they entered the store, Villa and Brining dropped to the ground, and Villa pressed the store's panic button. The tallest suspect and the medium-height suspect approached Villa and demanded money. One of the men came around the counter, and the other jumped over while firing gunshots. After opening one of the cash registers, Villa tried to open another but struggled to do so. The medium-height suspect used his pistol to hit her twice on the top of her head and once on her face. While striking Villa, he said, "I'm gonna kill you, bitch." Villa fell to the ground, acting as though she was unconscious.

         While they were behind the counter, the robbers tried to intimidate Villa and Brining by firing several shots near them. The robbers also tried to get Brining to open the safe, but because it was his first night on the job, he did not know how. Brining was struck several times with the butt of a gun. The robbers fired gunshots at the safe, trying to open it, and one of the bullets ricocheted off of the safe and struck Brining in the knuckle. They eventually abandoned their attempt to shoot open the safe, opting to ransack the store before leaving with the money from the registers.

         Villa saw enough of the tall and medium robbers' skin to discern they were black. The store's video surveillance cameras showed one of the robbers wore a distinctive gray boot style shoe and was wearing black and white Easton batting gloves. Another robber was carrying a revolver with a wood handle, had on two-toned black and gray gloves, and was wearing a mask with a University of Missouri logo. The third robber was wearing a jacket with a gold eagle emblem on the back.

         While entering the store, one of the suspects used a section of picket fence to prop open the door. Officers later discovered the section of fence was taken from a privacy fence located behind the gas station. While examining the fence behind the store, officers discovered a pack of Newport cigarettes and a knotted section of black t-shirt. Officers also recovered numerous bullet fragments and empty shell casings from the gas station.

         7-Eleven robbery

         The final robbery occurred at the 7-Eleven convenience store located at 4331 Shawnee Drive in Kansas City, Kansas. In the early morning hours of March 4, 2015, Dan Bayer was the only person working the overnight shift. Around 1 a.m., Officer Scott Wood with the Wyandotte County Sheriff's Office came into the store. Officer Wood had just finished his work shift and stopped at the gas station on his way home. He was still in uniform and wearing his gun. After selecting some items, Officer Wood went to the checkout counter, where he struck up a conversation with Bayer.

         The robbery began as the two were leaning on the counter and talking-Bayer facing the front door and Officer Wood facing away from the door. Three armed men dressed in black and wearing masks entered the store. They held their guns in the air, announced it was a robbery, and ordered Officer Wood to lie down on the ground. Bayer observed one of assailants was "noticeably taller" than the others. Before Officer Wood went to the ground, he was able to catch a glimpse of the men. He also described one of the men as "a bit stockier than the other two and a little bit taller."

         One of the men came over the counter, grabbed Bayer's arm, and hit him in the head. Another suspect came around the counter while the other positioned himself over Officer Wood. The men ordered Bayer to open the cash register, and after he had done so, they had Bayer place the money in a bag. Bayer was then ordered to hand over his wallet, but when the suspects discovered there was no money in it, they returned it to Bayer. Bayer was then ordered to withdraw money from the ...

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